However, those electrostatic motors were very weak, and they required very high voltage for operation. Such characteristics had been prevented electrostatic motors from practical uses, and had made people believe that electrostatic motors are useless stuffs.
However, again, the situation has changed drastically in late 1980s. Micro electrosatic motors, which were fabricated using IC manufacturing process, attracted many researchers' attentions, and since then, many micro electrostatic motors has been fabricated up to now[4,5].
Why do researchers of micro-motor prefer electrostaic motor rather than electro-megnetic motor? There are two major reasons as descibed in the following:
This second reason leads us to such idea that we can obtain very strong electrostatic motor by integrating many small electrostatic-motor-elements. Based on this idea, some researchers are engaged in development of high-power electrostatic motors, and so we are. By utilizing Flexible Printed Circuitry (FPC) films, our developed electrostatic motors successfully recorded larger thrust force than other high-power electrostatic motors did.
Pulse Driven Induction Electrostatic Motor
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Dual Excitation Multiphase Electrostatic Drive
 T. Niino, S. Egawa, H. Kimura, and T. Higuchi : "Electrostatic Artificial Muscle : Compact, High-Power Linear Actuators with Multiple-Layer Structures", Proc. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop '94, pp. 130-135 (1994)
 The Institue of Electrostatics Japan: "Handbook of Electrostatics (in Japanese)", Ohm co. (1981)
 L. S. Fan, Y. C. Tai, and R. S. Muller : "IC-Processed Electrostatic Micro-motors", Proc. IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 666-669 (1988)
 S. C. Jacobsen, R. H. Price, and J. E. Wood : "The Wobble Motor : An Electrostatic, Planetary-armature, Miroactuator", Proc. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop '89, pp. 17-24 (1989)